Plural Nouns in Spanish

Below we'll explore how to make nouns plural and the rules that plural nouns follow in Spanish. When a noun ends in a vowel, simply add -s to make it plural. Listen to the following examples, then repeat each one out loud.
English
Spanish
boys
niños
books
libros
pens
plumas
girls
muchachas


When a noun becomes plural, its definite article must also become plural – "el" becomes "los" and "la" becomes "las". Consider the following examples.
the boys
los niños
the books
los libros
the pens
las plumas
the girls
las muchachas


When a noun ends in a consonant, you just add -es to make it plural. Consider the following examples.
the universities
las universidades
the matadors
los matadores
the professors
los profesores
the cities
las ciudades


When a noun ends in -ión, you add -es and remove the written accent to make it plural. Consider the following examples.
Singular
Plural
la canción
las canciones
la selección
las selecciones
la televisión
las televisiones


To make a noun ending in -z plural, change the z to c and add -es. Consider the following examples.
la voz
las voces
el lápiz
los lápices
la actriz
las actrices


When using the plural to refer to several nouns of different genders, you use the masculine form. Consider the following examples.
10 dogs (male and female)
10 perros
5 cats (male and female)
5 gatos


Compound nouns, which are formed by combining two words to make a single word, are always masculine. Plural compound nouns are formed by changing "el" to "los".
el abrelata
los abrelatas
el paragua
los paraguas