Spanish Verbs: Past Participle

The past participle tense in Spanish is used to conjugate a verb so it can function as an adjective, predicative, or work with the verb haber to form the perfect tenses.

To create the regular past participle in Spanish, you drop the infinitive ending (-ar, -er, -ir) and replace it with -ado (for -ar verbs) or -ido (for -er and -ir verbs). The past participle in Spanish is equivalent to adding -ed to English verbs.

  • hablar - ar + ado = hablado
  • comer - er + ido = comido
  • vivir - ir + ido = vivido
The Spanish verbs listed directly below do not follow the normal rules for creating the regular past participles, the have irregular past participles. The column on the right contains the Spanish verb and it's irregular past participle in bold. The column on the left contains the English counterparts.

to open
abrir
opened
abierto


to cover
cubrir
covered
cubierto


to say
decir
said
dicho


to do
hacer
done
hecho


to write
escribir
written
escrito


to die
morir
dead
muerto


to fry
freír
fried
frito


to put
poner
put
puesto


to resolve
resolver
resolved
resuelto


to see
ver
seen
visto


to break
romper
broken
roto


to return
volver
returned
vuelto

In Spanish there are several compound verbs that are based on irregular verbs. In the past participle these compound verbs inherit the same form as the irregular verbs they're based on. Read and listen to the following examples, then repeat each out loud.

componer
(to compose)
compuesto
(composed)
describir
(to describe)
descrito
(described)
devolver
(to return)
devuelto
(returned)

Past Participle for Perfect Tenses

The most common use for the past participle is for the perfect tenses – which usually describes what a person has done. Review and listen to the examples of past participle for perfect tense below, then repeat each out loud.

Have you traveled through Spain?
¿Has viajado por España?
You will have read all of these books.
Habrán leído todos estos libros.

Past Participle as an Adjective

When the past participle is used as an adjective, it has to agree in number and gender with the noun(s) it modifies. Review and listen to the following examples, then repeat each out loud.

I like to eat scrambled eggs.
Me gusta comer los huevos revueltos.
We entered through the open door in the kitchen.
Entramos por la puerta abierta en la cocina.

Past Participle as a Predicative Adjective

The past participle functions as a predicative adjective, when used in conjunction with linking verbs, such as ser, estar, and parecer. When used as a predicative adjective, a past participle must agree in gender and number with the noun it modifies. Review and listen to the following examples, then repeat each out loud.

My favorite book was written by Miguel de Cervantes.
Mi libro favorito fue escrito por Miguel de Cervantes.
The doors to the house are open.
Las puertas de la casa están abiertas.
The banana appears rotten.
El plátano parece podrido.
The bananas appear rotten.
Los plátanos parecen podridos.