Nationalities as Adjectives in Spanish

Nationalities can be used as adjectives, and like other adjectives, nationality as an adjective can take on four forms: masculine, feminine, singular, and plural. Consider the following examples. (Note: in Spanish nationalities are not capitalized like they are in English.)
Fernand is a Canadian man.
Fernand es un hombre canadiense.
Vernonica is a Honduran girl.
Vernonica es una chica hondureña.
Juan and Juana are Honduran.
Juan y Juana son hondureños.
Veronica and Juana are Honduran.
Veronica y Juana son hondureñas.

Forming Nationalities as Adjectives

The following are the basic rules for forming nationalities as adjectives:

  • Nationalities that end in an -o: change the -o to an -a for singular feminine and add -s to make either gender plural.
  • Nationalities that end in -e or -é: add -s to make plural.
  • Nationalities that end in -á, í, ó, or ú: add -s to make plural.
  • Nationalities that end in a consonant: add an -a to the end of masculine form to make singular feminine and remove written accent. Add -as to make plural feminine and -es to make plural masculine.

Study the following examples. Read and listen to each, then repeat out loud.

My boyfriend is Argentine.
Mi novio es argentino.
My girlfriend is Argentine.
My novia es argentina.
My best friends are Argentine.
Mis mejores amigos son argentinos.
My sisters are Argentine.
Mis hermanas son argentinas.

My mom is Costa Rican.
Mi madre es costarricense.
My parents are Costa Rican.
Mis padres son costarricenses.
I am Iraqi.
Soy iraquí.
Those girls are Iraqi.
Aquellas chicas son iraquíes.
She is Hindu.
Ella es hindú.
The men are Hindu.
Los hombres son hindúes.

He is German.
(singular, masculine)
Él es alemán.
She is German.
(singular, feminine)
Ella es alemana.
They are German.
(plural, masculine)
Son alemanes.
They are German.
(plural, feminine)
Son alemanas.

He is Spanish.
(singular, masculine)
Él es español.
She is Spanish.
(singular, femine)
Ella es española.
They are Spanish.
(plural, masculine)
Ellos son españoles.
They are Spanish.
(plural, feminine)
Ellas son españolas.

He is Danish.
(singular, masculine)
Él es danés.
She is Danish.
(singular, feminine)
Ella es danesa.
They are Danish.
(masculine, plural)
Ellos son daneses.
They are Danish.
(feminine, plural)
Ellas son danesas.

Nationalities Ending in a Vowel

Below is a list of the most common world nationalities that end in a vowel. They are arranged left to right as follows: masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular, feminine plural.

    estadounidense, estadounidenses, estadounidense, estadounidenses

    argentino, argentinos, argentina, argentinas

    boliviano, bolivianos, boliviana, bolivianas

    canadiense, canadienses, canadiense, canadienses

    Costa Rican
    costarricense, costarricenses, costarricense, costarricenses

    hondureño, hondureños, hondureña, hondurañas

    hindú, hindúes, hindú, hindúes

    iraquí, iraquíes, iraquí, iraquíes

    italiano, italianos, italiana, italianas

    mexicano, mexicanos, mexicana, mexicanas

    mmarroquí, marroquíes, marroquí, marroquíes

    nicaragüense, nicaragüenses, nicaragüense, nicaragüenses

    Puerto Rican
    puertorriqueño, puertorriqueños, puertorriqueña, puertorriqueñas

    uruguayo, uruguayos, uruguaya, uruguayas

    venezolano, venezolanos, venezolana, venezolanas

Nationalities Ending in a Consonant

Below is a list of the most common world nationalities that end in a consonant. They are are arranged left to right as follows: masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular, feminine plural.

    alemán, alemanes, alemana, alemanas

    ddanés, daneses, danesa, danesas

    finlandés, finlandeses, finlandesa, finlandesas

    español, españoles, española, españolas

    francés, franceses francesa francesas

    japonés, japoneses, japonesa, japonesas

    irlandés, irlandeses, irlandesa, irlandesas

    libanés, libaneses, libanesa, libanesas

    tailandés, tailandeses, tailandesa, tailandesas