Spanish Augmentatives, Suffixes and Prefixes
Unlike English, where words can't be augmented, augmentatives are common place in Spanish. Augmented words in Spanish indicate that something is either large or undesirable. Augmentatives must match the adjective or noun they modify in gender and number.
AugmentativesFor words ending in a consonant simply add the suffix. For words ending in a vowel, drop the vowel before adding the appropriate augmentative suffix. Consider the following examples.
big, mean dog
worthless bit of paper
Other Spanish Suffixes and EndingsThe suffixes listed below are neither diminutive nor augmentative. They do however change the meaning of the words they're attached to and are important to know in order to improve your Spanish fluency. Consider the following examples.
-ada adds "-ful" or "load" to a word:
-ado, -ido turns a verbs into an adjective:
to have fun
-azo indicates a blow or strike:
-dura turns a verb into its result:
-ería turns a noun into a store:
-eza turns an adjective into a noun:
-ísimo, -ísima intensifies an adjective:
-mente converts an adjective into an adverb:
-al, -tal turns a food into its tree or grove:
-ante converts a noun into an occupation:
-anza turns a verb into a noun:
-ano, -ense turns a place into a resident of that place:
-ario turns a location into an occupation:
-dero, -dera converts a verb into a place where that action took place:
-dor, -dora converts a verb into an occupation:
-eo converts a specific noun into a more general noun:
-ero, -era converts a noun into job or function:
-ear turns a "borrowed" verb in English into a Spanish verb:
to text someone
-ista converts a noun into an occupation:
PrefixesIn some Spanish speaking countries adding prefixes to words is common. Three of the most common prefixes used include "re-", "requete-" (very) and "super-" (super). Consider the following examples.
The tacos here are very good.
Los tacos aquí son rebuenos.
My sister is very crazy.
Mi hermana es requeteloca.
The challenge was very easy!
¡El desafío fue superfácil!